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How do hand sanitizers work?

For a virus, sanitizers work by disrupting the virus's outer coat, including the novel coronavirus. For bacteria, they work by disrupting its cell membrane. According to the CDC, hand sanitizers are effective when they contain at least 60 percent rubbing alcohol. However, they are not effective against viruses that do not have these coatings, like the norovirus, which causes the stomach flu. This is why proper hand washing habits are more important than relying on just hand sanitizer. Hand-washing for at least 20 seconds is overall the most effective way to get rid of viruses.

Drafted: 10 March 2020